Refers to advertisers or agencies working directly with a publisher to buy advertising space on their website or publication. Through a more manual sales process, they agree to a price, placement, audience reached, and time frame. This traditional approach to media buying benefits larger websites that can afford a dedicated sales team, often being able to sell their inventory at a premium; however, it is often not an option for niche or incumbent websites that cannot afford this overhead and attract the attention of larger advertisers.